The history of The National Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB) of Republic Indonesia was related to the development of disaster management activity since Indonesia’s Independence Movement in 1945 to the mega-earthquake that struck Indian Ocean in the twentieth century.
Indonesia as the largest archipelago country in the world has 17.508 islands. This country has many kinds of natural resources, but it is also part of a ring of fire zone. As consequences, there are 129 active volcanoes that spread all over the nation and threatening the inhabitants.
Beside the threat from the volcanoes, Indonesia, is located in the cross section between three active tectonic plates: Indo-Australia, Eurasia, and Pasific. Therefore, this country suffers from geological disaster such as: earthquake and tsunami.
Geological disaster is not the only type of disaster that hit Indonesia. Due to its location in the tropical zone, the country also has to be faced with hydro-meteorological disaster such as: strong wind, flood, landslide, and drought.
Both geological and hydro-meteorological disaster is caused by the power of nature. In addition, Indonesia also has non natural or man made disaster. For instance, this type of disaster are forest fire, social conflict, and technological failure.
In order to face those kinds of disaster, Indonesia government established disaster management system. An institution that manage with the disaster is inevitable. The process of development the disaster institution in Indonesia is shown in the diagram below.